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Lesson 3, Topic 6
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# C++: Chaining

##### Yasin Cakal 6 Nov 2021
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Now that we have learned to create multiple output statements, let’s learn to output multiple things in a single statement. In the last code, we outputted `marks` using the statement `std::court<<marks;`.

Note that we used quotation marks when printing the phrase `Hello, World!` on the screen but we missed the quotation marks here. Quotation marks are used when you have to print the output of a literal sentence, phrase, or sequence of characters like in `Hello, World!`. Quotation marks are eliminated when you have to print the assigned value of a variable type or something similar.

Hence, we can use multiple `cout`s in one sentence to avoid having to create multiple statements. This is called chaining. Multiple `<<` are with the following statement to chain these outputs. Let’s try in the following code:

``````#include <iostream>

int main()
{
int age=21;
std::cout<<"How old is Andy?\n"<<"Andy is "<<age<<" years old.";
return 0;
}``````

Output:

```How old is Andy?
Andy is 21 years old.```

As observed above, we didn’t even have to use separate statements for creating separate lines in the output. Let’s understand what we did in the code above:

• an `int` type variable age was declared and assigned the value of `21`.
• A character output stream was created and the statement `How old is Andy?\n` was added in the quotation marks. `\n` was added with it to add a new line.
• It was chained using `<<` and the literal character sequence `Andy is `was added. Note that a space was added after `is` in the statement so that the `age` variable has a space between `is` and the value.
• Next statement ` years old.` was chained to complete the sentence in the output and ended with a `;`.
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